List of papers that related to SNPAlyze

Last updated: 18 December, 2015

*The following papers were found using the search term "SNPAlyze". As neither document purpose nor use of product names were validated, we are unable to guarantee the content will suit your needs. Please confirm the content whether it is suitable for your aim.



2015

  1. Shirai Y. et al. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood. PLoS One 24;10(6):e0127244(2015).
  2. Inaoka Y. et al. Allelic Imbalance of mRNA Associated with α2-HS Glycoprotein (Fetuin-A) Polymorphism. Dis Markers 865053(2015).
  3. Abudoukelimu M. et al. The association of cholesterol absorption gene Numb polymorphism with Coronary Artery Disease among Han Chinese and Uighur Chinese in Xinjiang, China. Lipids Health Dis 29;14:120(2015)
  4. Cho Y. et al. Association of reduced folate carrier-1 (RFC-1) polymorphisms with ischemic stroke and silent brain infarction. PLoS One. 6;10(2):e0115295(2015).
  5. Kang SG. Et al. MEIS1, a Promising Candidate Gene, Is Not Associated with the Core Symptoms of Antipsychotic-Induced Restless Legs Syndrome in Korean Schizophrenia Patients. Psychiatry Investig 12(2):263-267(2015).
  6. Tsuchimine S. et al. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects. PLoS One 15;10(5):e0126983(2015).
  7. Kim HS. et al. The Association of the GABRP Polymorphisms with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. J Immunol Res 602154(2015).
  8. Kim YR. et al. Association between the polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and metabolic syndrome. Biomed Rep 3(3):319-326(2015).

2014

  1. Tsuchihashi T. et al. Prognostic phenotypic and genotypic factors associated with photodynamic therapy response in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Clin Ophthalmol 5;8:2471-2478(2014).
  2. Awata T. et al. A genome-wide association study for diabetic retinopathy in a Japanese population: potential association with a long intergenic non-coding RNA. PLoS One 3;9(11):e111715(2014).
  3. Toda M. et al. Genetic polymorphism of the human organic solute carrier protein 1 (hOSCP1) gene in Japanese patients with non-viral liver carcinoma. Meta Gene 2:686-693(2014).
  4. Jeong HE. et al. Development of a multiplex and cost-effective genotype test toward more personalized medicine for the antiplatelet drug clopidogrel. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 15(5) 7699-7710(2014).
  5. Kim YR. et al. Association of CYP11B2 polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome patients. Biomedical Reports 2(5) 749-754(2014).
  6. Nishizawa D. et al. Association between genetic polymorphism rs2952768, close to the METTL21A and CREB1 genes, and intellectual ability in healthy subjects. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy 5(2) doi:10.4172/2155-6105.1000178(2014).
  7. Tanaka T. et al. Associations of complement factor B and complement component 2 genotypes with subtypes of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. BMC Ophthalmology 14(83) doi:10.1186/1471-2415-14-83(2014).
  8. Yi M. et al. The female-specific effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A gene on postoperative vomiting in Taiwan. Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine 6(2) 59-66(2014).

2013

  1. Inamori T. et al. The combined effects of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum LDL-C and HDL-C levels: a population based study. Lipids in Health and Disease 12(4) doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-4(2013).
  2. Migita K. et al. Association of STAT4 Polymorphisms with susceptibility to Type-1 autoimmune hepatitis in the Japanese population. PLoS One 8(8) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071382 (2013).
  3. Migita K. et al. The contribution of SAA1 polymorphisms to familial mediterranean fever susceptibility in the Japanese population. PLoS One 8(2) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055227(2013).
  4. Ohi K. et al. The impact of the genome-wide supported variant in the cyclin M2 gene on gray matter morphology in schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Functions 9(40) doi:10.1186/1744-9081-9-40 (2013).
  5. Sahu U. et al. Promoter polymorphisms in the ATP binding cassette transporter gene influence production of cell-derived microparticles and are highly associated with susceptibility to severe malaria in humans. Infection and Immunity 8(4) 1287-1294(2013).

2012

  1. Akiyama Y. et al. Association of ABCC2 genotype with efficacy of first-line FOLFIRI in Japanese patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 27(3) 325-335(2012).
  2. Aoi N. et al. The insulin-like growth factor-1 gene is associated with cerebral infarction in Japanese subjects. Hereditas 149(5) 153-162(2012).
  3. Ban Y. et al. Autoimmune thyroid disease genes identified in non-caucasians. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases 2(4) 107-116(2012).
  4. Ban Y. et al. Multiple SNPs in intron 41 of thyroglobulin gene are associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in the Japanese Population. PLoS One 7(5) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037501(2012).
  5. Ban Y. Genetic factors of autoimmune thyroid Diseases in Japanese. Autoimmune Diseases doi:10.1155/2012/236981(2012).
  6. Bessho H. et al. The association of CD36 variants with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy compared to typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Molecular Vision 18 121-127(2012).
  7. Jiang J. et al. Haplotype of smoothelin gene associated with essential hypertension. Hereditas 149(5) 178-185(2012).
  8. Maekawa K. et al. Development of a rapid and inexpensive assay for detecting a surrogate genetic polymorphism of HLA-B*58:01: a partially predictive but useful biomarker for allopurinol-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis in Japanese. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 27(4) 447-450(2012).
  9. Mishra A. et al. CYBA and GSTP1 variants associate with oxidative stress under hypobaric hypoxia as observed in high-altitude pulmonary oedema. Clinical Science 122(6) 299-309(2012).
  10. Miyakawa H. et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SEPTIN12 gene may be a genetic risk factor for Japanese patients with sertoli cell?only syndrome. Journal of Andrology 33(3) 483?487(2012).
  11. Miyamoto T. et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HORMAD1 may be a risk factor for azoospermia caused by meiotic arrest in Japanese patients. Asian Journal of Andrology 14(4) 580-583(2012).
  12. Shimizu A. et al. Evaluation of CNTNAP2 gene polymorphisms for exfoliation syndrome in Japanese. Molecular Vision 18(1) 1395-1401(2012).
  13. Zhenyan F. et al. Haplotype-based case-control study of CYP4A11 gene and myocardial infarction. Hereditas 149(3) 91-98(2012).

2011

  1. Bessho H. et al. Positive association of complement factor H Gene variants with the effect of photodynamic therapy in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology 2(1) doi:org/10.4172/2155-9570.1000122 (2011).
  2. Fujii T. et al. Possible association of the semaphorin 3D gene (SEMA3D) with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 45(1) 47-53(2011).
  3. Hanzawa R. et al. No association between glutathione-synthesis-related genes and Japanese schizophreniapcn. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 65(1) 39-46(2011).
  4. Hattori K. et al. Genetic variations of fyn-tyrosine kinase in psychiatric disorders. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 26(1) doi:10.1097/01.yic.0000405820.47679.e7(2011).
  5. Hattori S. et al. Relationship between RANTES polymorphisms and respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in a Japanese infant population. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 64(3) 242-245(2011).
  6. Miyamura H. et al. Polymorphisms in the annexin A5 gene promoter in Japanese women with recurrent pregnancy loss. Molecular Human Reproduction 17(7) 447-452(2011).
  7. Ohashi J. et al. The impact of natural selection on an ABCC11 SNP determining earwax type. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28(1) 849-857(2011).
  8. Yeo CW. et al. Discovery of a novel allelic variant of CYP2C8, CYP2C8*11, in asian populations and its clinical effect on the rosiglitazone disposition in vivo. Drug Metabolism & Disposition 39(4) 711-716(2011).
  9. Yoon KL. et al. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase are not a risk factor for Kawasaki disease in the Korean population. Korean Journal of Pediatrics 54(8) 335-339(2011).
  10. Yoshida K. et al. Role of the MICA polymorphism in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatology 63(10) 3058-3066(2011).

2010

  1. Goto M. et al. Three novel NEIL1 promoter polymorphisms in gastric cancer patients. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology 2(2) 117-120(2010).
  2. Hanzawa R. et al. No association between glutathione-synthesis-related genes and Japanese schizophrenia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 65(1) 39-46(2010).
  3. Higa M. et al. Association analysis between functional polymorphism of the rs4606 SNP in the RGS2 gene and antipsychotic-induced Parkinsonism in Japanese patients with schizophrenia: results from the Juntendo University Schizophrenia Projects (JUSP). Neuroscience Letters 469(1) 55-59(2010).
  4. Kuerban B. et al. Genetic association between PLTP gene polymorphisms and Alzheimer’s disease in a Japanese population. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 30(1) 78-82(2010).
  5. Nanfang L. et al. Associations between genetic variations in the FURIN gene and hypertension. BMC Medical Genetics 11(124) doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-124(2010).
  6. Ohnuma T. et al. No association between DAO and schizophrenia in a Japanese patient population: a multicenter replication study. Schizophrenia Research 118(1) 300-302(2010).
  7. Okazaki T. et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of gemcitabine metabolic genes and pancreatic cancer survival and drug toxicity. Clinical Cancer Research 16(1) 320-329(2010).
  8. Shibata N. et al. Genetic association between CALHM1, 2, and 3 polymorphisms and Alzheimer’s disease in a Japanese population. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 20(2) 417-421(2010).
  9. Yamaguchi M. et al. The haplotype of the CACNA1B gene associated with cerebral infarction in a Japanese population. Hereditas 147(6) 313-319(2010).

2009

  1. Ohnuma T, Shibata N, Maeshima H, Baba H, Hatano T, Hanzawa R, Arai H: Association analysis of glycine- and serine-related genes in a Japanese population of patients with schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33: 511-518, 2009
  2. Nagai Y, Ohnuma T, Karibe J, Shibata N, Maeshima H, Baba H, Hatano T, Hanzawa R, Arai H: No genetic association between the SLC1A2 gene and Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Neurosci Lett 463: 223-227, 2009
  3. Shibata N, Ohnuma T, Baba H, Arai H: No genetic association between polymorphisms of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 and Alzheimer’s disease in a Japanese population. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 27: 273-277, 2009
  4. Shibata N, Ohnuma T, Baba H, Arai H: Genetic association analysis between TDP-43 polymorphisms and Alzheimer’s disease in a Japanese population. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 28: 325-329, 2009

2008

  1. Shibata N, Ohnuma T, Baba H, Higashi S, Nishioka K, Arai H: Genetic association between SORL1 polymorphisms and Alzheimer’s disease in a Japanese population. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 26: 161-164, 2008
  2. Nozawa M, Ohnuma T, Matsubara Y, Sakai Y, Hatano T, Hanzawa R, Shibata N, Arai H: The Relationship Between the Response of Clinical Symptoms and Plasma Olanzapine Concentration, Based on Pharmacogenetics: Juntendo University Schizophrenia Projects (JUSP). Ther Drug Monit 30: 35-40, 2008
  3. Suga T, Iwakawa M, Tsuji H, Ishikawa H, Oda E, Noda S, Otsuka Y, Ishikawa A, Ishikawa K, Shimazaki J, Mizoe JE, Tsujii H, Imai T. Influence of multiple genetic polymorphisms on genitourinary morbidity after carbon ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer.  Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Nov 1;72(3):808-13. Epub 2008 Apr 18.

2007

  1. Akinori Miyashita, Hiroyuki Arai, Takashi Asada, Masaki Imagawa, Etsuro Matsubara, Mikio Shoji, Susumu Higuchi, Katsuya Urakami, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hitoshi Takahashi, Shinichi Toyabe, Kohei Akazawa, Ichiro Kanazawa, Yasuo Ihara, Ryozo Kuwano, and The Japanese Genetic Study Consortium for Alzeheimer’s Disease. Genetic association of CTNNA3 with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease in females. Hum. Mol. Genet., Dec 2007; 16: 2854 – 2869.
  2. Li Jiao, Mark A. Doll, David W. Hein, Melissa L. Bondy, Manal M. Hassan, James E. Hixson, James L. Abbruzzese, and Donghui Li. Haplotype of N-Acetyltransferase 1 and 2 and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., Nov 2007; 16: 2379 – 2386.
  3. Keisuke Mori, Peter L. Gehlbach, Sho Kabasawa, Izumi Kawasaki, Masataka Oosaki, Hiroyuki Iizuka, Shigehiro Katayama, Takuya Awata, and Shin Yoneya. Coding and Noncoding Variants in the CFH Gene and Cigarette Smoking Influence the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Japanese Population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., Nov 2007; 48: 5315 – 5319.
  4. Su-Ryang Kim, Kimie Sai, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinno, Shogo Ozawa, Nahoko Kaniwa, Yoshiro Saito, Akira Akasawa, Kenji Matsumoto, Hirohisa Saito, Naoyuki Kamatani, Kuniaki Shirao, Noboru Yamamoto, Teruhiko Yoshida, Hironobu Minami, Atsushi Ohtsu, Nagahiro Saijo, and Jun-ichi Sawada. Haplotypes and a Novel Defective Allele of CES2 Found in a Japanese Population. Drug Metab. Dispos., Oct 2007; 35: 1865 – 1872.
  5. Hiroshi Hirata, Yuji Hinoda, Nobuyuki Kikuno, Ken Kawamoto, Angela V. Dahiya, Yutaka Suehiro, Yuichiro Tanaka, and Rajvir Dahiya. CXCL12 G801A Polymorphism Is a Risk Factor for Sporadic Prostate Cancer Susceptibility. Clin. Cancer Res., Sep 2007; 13: 5056 – 5062.
  6. Hiroshi Hirata, Yuji Hinoda, Nobuyuki Kikuno, Ken Kawamoto, Yutaka Suehiro, Yuichiro Tanaka, and Rajvir Dahiya. MDM2 SNP309 Polymorphism as Risk Factor for Susceptibility and Poor Prognosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma. Clin. Cancer Res., Jul 2007; 13: 4123 – 4129.
  7. Haiyan Zhu, H. Michael Tucker, Karrie E. Grear, James F. Simpson, Alisa K. Manning, L. Adrienne Cupples, and Steven Estus. A common polymorphism decreases low-density lipoprotein receptor exon 12 splicing efficiency and associates with increased cholesterol. Hum. Mol. Genet., Jul 2007; 16: 1765 – 1772.
  8. Noriyuki Ito, Masatoshi Eto, Eijiro Nakamura, Atsushi Takahashi, Taiji Tsukamoto, Hiroshi Toma, Hayakazu Nakazawa, Yoshihiko Hirao, Hirotsugu Uemura, Susumu Kagawa, Hiroomi Kanayama, Yoshiaki Nose, Naoko Kinukawa, Tsuyoshi Nakamura, Nobuyoshi Jinnai, Toyokazu Seki, Masanobu Takamatsu, Yoshihiro Masui, Seiji Naito, and Osamu Ogawa. STAT3 Polymorphism Predicts Interferon-Alfa Response in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma. J. Clin. Oncol., Jul 2007; 25: 2785 – 2791.
  9. M. Akahori, N. Inoue, M. Minami, H. Okamoto, M. Obazawa, Y. Miyake, and T. Iwata. Identification of Glaucoma Associated SNPs Using SNP Microarray. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., May 2007; 48: 5922.
  10. A. Kawasaki, N. Tsuchiya, J. Ohashi, Y. Murakami, T. Fukazawa, M. Kusaoi, S. Morimoto, K. Matsuta, H. Hashimoto, Y. Takasaki, and K. Tokunaga. Role of APRIL (TNFSF13) polymorphisms in the susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Japanese. Rheumatology, May 2007; 46: 776 – 782.

2006

  1. Krischek B, Kasuya H, Akagawa H, Tajima A, Narita A, Onda H, Hori T, Inoue I. Using endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms to identify intracranial aneurysms more prone to rupture in Japanese patients. J Neurosurg, Nov 2006; 105(5); 717-722.
  2. Naoharu Iwai, Kazuaki Kajimoto, Yoshihiro Kokubo, and Hitonobu Tomoike. Extensive Genetic Analysis of 10 Candidate Genes for Hypertension in Japanese. Hypertension, Nov 2006; 48: 901 – 907.
  3. Minae Kawashima, Gen Tamiya, Akira Oka, Hirohiko Hohjoh, Takeo Juji, Takashi Ebisawa, Yutaka Honda, Hidetoshi Inoko, and Katsushi Tokunaga. Genomewide Association Analysis of Human Narcolepsy and a New Resistance Gene. Am J Hum Genet. Aug 2006; 79(2): 252-263.
  4. Ryozo Kuwano, Akinori Miyashita, Hiroyuki Arai, Takashi Asada, Masaki Imagawa, Mikio Shoji, Susumu Higuchi, Katsuya Urakami, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hitoshi Takahashi, Tamao Tsukie, Shinichi Toyabe, Kohei Akazawa, Ichiro Kanazawa, Yasuo Ihara, and The Japanese Genetic Study Consortium for Alzheimer’s Disease. Dynamin-binding protein gene on chromosome 10q is associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Hum, Mol. Genet. Jul 2006; 15: 2170-2182.
  5. Soo-Cheon Chae, Young-Ran Park, Chun-Shi Li, Jae-Hoon Lee, Yun-Sik Yang, Qinggao Zhang, Kyung-Suk Kim and Hun-Taeg Chung. Analysis of the variations in IL-28RA gene and their association with allergic rhinitis. Exp Mol Med. Jun 2006; 38(3): 302-309.
  6. Kazuo Hara, Momoko Horikoshi, Hiroji Kitazato, Chikako Ito, Mitsuhiko Noda, Jun Ohashi, Philippe Froguel, Katsushi Tokunaga, Kazuyuki Tobe, Ryozo Nagai, and Takashi Kadowaki. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4 Alpha P2 Promoter Haplotypes Are Associated With Type 2 Diabetes in the Japanese Population. Diabetes. May 2006; 55:1260-1264.
  7. Ikuko Mizuta, Wataru Satake, Yuko Nakabayashi, Chiyomi Ito, Satoko Suzuki, Yoshio Momose, Yoshitaka Nagai, Akira Oka, Hidetoshi Inoko, Jiro Fukae, Yuko Saito, Motoji Sawabe, Shigeo Murayama, Mitsutoshi Yamamoto, Nobutaka Hattori, Miho Murata, and Tatsushi Toda. Multiple candidate gene analysis identifies -synuclein as a susceptibility gene for sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Hum. Mol. Genet. Apr 2006; 15:1151-1158.
  8. Kent Doi, Eisei Noiri, Toshiro Fujita, and Katsushi Tokunaga. Non-association of VEGF genetic polymorphisms in promoter 5′ UTR with end-stage renal disease. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. Apr 2006; 21:1124-1125.
  9. Momoko Horikoshi, Kazuo Hara, Jun Ohashi, Kazuaki Miyake, Katsushi Tokunaga, Chikako Ito, Masato Kasuga, Ryozo Nagai, and Takashi Kadowaki. A Polymorphism in the AMPK alpha 2 Subunit Gene Is Associated With Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes in the Japanese Population. Diabetes. Apr 2006; 55:919-923.
  10. Hiroyuki Akagawa, Atsushi Tajima, Yoshiko Sakamoto, Boris Krischek, Taku Yoneyama, Hidetoshi Kasuya, Hideaki Onda, Tomokatsu Hori, Motoo Kubota, Toshio Machida, Naokatsu Saeki, Akira Hata, Kazunari Hashiguchi, Eizou Kimura, Chul-Jin Kim, Tae-Ki Yang, Jong-Young Lee, Kuchan Kimm, and Ituro Inoue. A haplotype spanning two genes, ELN and LIMK1, decreases their transcripts and confers susceptibility to intracranial aneurysms. Hum. Mol. Genet. Apr 2006.
  11. Okamoto H, Umeda S, Obazawa M, Minami M, Noda T, Mizota A, Honda M, Tanaka M, Koyama R, Takagi I, Sakamoto Y, Saito Y, Miyake Y, Iwata T. Complement factor H polymorphisms in Japanese population with age-related macular degeneration. Mol Vis. Mar 2006; 12:156-158.
  12. Kent Doi, Eisei Noiri, Akihide Nakao, Toshiro Fujita, Shuzo Kobayashi, and Katsushi Tokunaga. Functional Polymorphisms in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Are Associated with Development of End-Stage Renal Disease in Males. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. Mar 2006; 17:823-830.
  13. Donghui Li, Hui Liu, Li Jiao, David Z. Chang, Garth Beinart, Robert A. Wolff, Douglas B. Evans, Manal M. Hassan, and James L. Abbruzzese. Significant Effect of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms on Pancreatic Cancer Survival. Cancer Res. Mar 2006; 66:3323-3330.
  14. Jaana M. Hartikainen, Hanna Tuhkanen, Vesa Kataja, Matti Eskelinen, Matti Uusitupa, Veli-Matti Kosma, and Arto Mannermaa. Refinement of the 22q12-q13 Breast CancerAssociated Region: Evidence of TMPRSS6 as a Candidate Gene in an Eastern Finnish Population. Clin. Cancer Res. Mar 2006; 12:1454-1462.
  15. Aritoshi Iida, Hideki Kizawa, Yusuke Nakamura and Shiro Ikegawa. High-resolution SNP map of ASPN, a susceptibility gene for osteoarthritis. Journal of Human Genetics. Feb 2006.
  16. Yuichiro Tanaka, Masahiro Sasaki, Hiroaki Shiina, Takashi Tokizane, Masao Deguchi, Hiroshi Hirata, Yuji Hinoda, Naoko Okayama, Yutaka Suehiro, Shinji Urakami, Toshifumi Kawakami, Masanori Kaneuchi, Deepa Pookot, Mikio Igawa, Akihiko Okuyama, Nobuhisa Ishii, and Rajvir Dahiya. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Gene Polymorphisms in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Sporadic Prostate Cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. Feb 2006; 15:238-244.
  17. Saeki M, Saito Y, Jinno H, Sai K, Ozawa S, Kurose K, Kaniwa N, Komamura K, Kotake T, Morishita H, Kamakura S, Kitakaze M, Tomoike H, Shirao K, Tamura T, Yamamoto N, Kunitoh H, Hamaguchi T, Yoshida T, Kubota K, Ohtsu A, Muto M, Minami H, Saijo N, Kamatani N, Sawada JI.Haplotype structures of the UGT1A gene complex in a Japanese population. Pharmacogenomics J. Jan-Feb 2006; 6(1):63-75.
  18. Ichikawa E, Watanabe A, Nakano Y, Akita S, Hirano A, Kinoshita A, Kondo S, Kishino T, Uchiyama T, Niikawa N, Yoshiura K. PAX9 and TGFB3 are linked to susceptibility to nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in the Japanese: population-based and family-based candidate gene analyses. J Hum Genet. Jan 2006; 51(1):38-36.
  19. N Sato, T Nakayama, S Asai and M Soma. A haplotype in the human Sur2 gene is associated with essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. Jan 2006; 20:87-90.
  20. Tomonori Hayashi, Kazue Imai, Yukari Morishita, Ikue Hayashi, Yoichiro Kusunoki, and Kei Nakachi. Identification of the NKG2D Haplotypes Associated with Natural Cytotoxic Activity of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Cancer Immunosurveillance. Cancer Res. Jan 2006; 66:563-570.
  21. Tomohiro Nakayama, Satoshi Asai, Naoyuki Sato, and Masayoshi Soma. Genotype and Haplotype Association Study of the STRK1 Region on 5q12 Among Japanese: A Case-Control Study. Stroke. Jan 2006; 37:69-76.

2005

  1. He X, Lu Y, Saha N, Yang H, Heng CK.Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase-2 gene polymorphisms and their association with plasma lipids and coronary artery disease risks.Hum GenetDec 2005;118(3-4):393-403
  2. Tsukahara S, Miyazawa N, Akagawa H, Forejtova S, Pavelka K, Tanaka T, Toh S, Tajima A, Akiyama I, Inoue I.COL6A1, the Candidate Gene for Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament, Is Associated With Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis in Japanese.SpineOct 2005;30(20):2321-2324
  3. Akira Matsuda, Tomomitsu Hirota, Mitsuteru Akahoshi, Makiko Shimizu, Mayumi Tamari, Akihiko Miyatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Kazuko Nakashima, Naomi Takahashi, Kazuhiko Obara, Noriko Yuyama, Satoru Doi, Yumiko Kamogawa, Tadao Enomoto, Koichi Ohshima, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Shoichiro Miyatake, Kimie Fujita, Moriaki Kusakabe, Kenji Izuhara, Yusuke Nakamura, Julian Hopkin, and Taro ShirakawaCoding SNP in tenascin-C Fn-III-D domain associates with adult asthmaHum. Mol. Genet.Oct 2005;14:2779-2786
  4. Makiko Shimizu, Akira Matsuda, Ken Yanagisawa, Tomomitsu Hirota, Mitsuteru Akahoshi, Naoko Inomata, Kouji Ebe, Keiko Tanaka, Hisashi Sugiura, Kazuko Nakashima, Mayumi Tamari, Naomi Takahashi, Kazuhiko Obara, Tadao Enomoto, Yoshimichi Okayama, Pei-Song Gao, Shau-Ku Huang, Shin-ichi Tominaga, Zenro Ikezawa, and Taro ShirakawaFunctional SNPs in the distal promoter of the ST2 gene are associated with atopic dermatitis Hum. Mol. GenetOct 2005;14:2919-2927
  5. Xuping Bao, Paul J. Mills, Brinda K. Rana, Joel E. Dimsdale, Nicholas J. Schork, Douglas W. Smith, Fangwen Rao, Milos Milic, Daniel T. O’Connor, and Michael G. ZieglerInteractive Effects of Common 2-Adrenoceptor Haplotypes and Age on Susceptibility to Hypertension and Receptor FunctionHypertensionAug 2005;46:301-307
  6. Yang J, Kamide K, Kokubo Y, Takiuchi S, Tanaka C, Banno M, Miwa Y, Yoshii M, Horio T, Okayama A, Tomoike H, Kawano Y, Miyata T.Genetic variations of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 in hypertensive patients and in the general population.J HypertensAug 2005;23(8):1497-1505
  7. Hara K, Horikoshi M, Kitazato H, Yamauchi T, Ito C, Noda M, Ohashi J, Froguel P, Tokunaga K, Nagai R, Kadowaki T.Absence of an association between the polymorphisms in the genes encoding adiponectin receptors and type 2 diabetes.DiabetologiaJul 2005;48(7):1307-1314
  8. Maekawa K, Saito Y, Ozawa S, Adachi-Akahane S, Kawamoto M, Komamura K, Shimizu W, Ueno K, Kamakura S, Kamatani N, Kitakaze M, Sawada J.Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of the human cardiac sodium channel alpha subunit gene (SCN5A) in Japanese and their association with arrhythmia.Ann Hum GenetJul 2005;69(Pt 4):413-428
  9. T. Yahata, J. Quan, N. Tamura, H. Nagata, T. Kurabayashi and K. Tanaka Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of estrogen receptor {alpha} gene and efficacy of HRT on bone mineral density in post-menopausal Japanese womenHum. ReprodJul 2005;20:1860 – 1866
  10. Tina Hummelshoj, Lea Munthe-Fog, Hans O. Madsen, Teizo Fujita, Misao Matsushita, and Peter GarredPolymorphisms in the FCN2 gene determine serum variation and function of Ficolin-2Hum. Mol. GenetJul 2005;14:1651 – 1658
  11. Hamada D, Takata Y, Osabe D, Nomura K, Shinohara S, Egawa H, Nakano S, Shinomiya F, Scafe CR, Reeve VM, Miyamoto T, Moritani M, Kunika K, Inoue H, Yasui N, Itakura M.Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SEC8L1 gene, which encodes a subunit of the exocyst complex, and rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population.Arthritis RheumMay 2005;52(5):1371-1380
  12. Kamide Kei, Kokubo Yoshihiro, Yang Jin, Tanaka Chihiro, Hanada Hironori, Takiuchi Shin, Inamoto Nozomu, Banno Mariko, Kawano Yuhei, Okayama Akira, Tomoike Hitonobu, Miyata Toshiyuki.Hypertension susceptibility genes on chromosome 2p24-p25 in a general Japanese population.Journal of HypertensionMay 2005;23(5):955-960
  13. Infante-Rivard C, Rivard GE, Guiguet M, Gauthier R.Thrombophilic polymorphisms and intrauterine growth restriction.EpidemiologyMay 2005;16(3):281-287
  14. Hitomi Hiratani, Donald W. Bowden, Satoshi Ikegami, Senji Shirasawa, Akira Shimizu, Yoshinori Iwatani, and Takashi AkamizuMultiple SNPs in Intron 7 of Thyrotropin Receptor Are Associated with Graves’ DiseaseJ. Clin. Endocrinol. MetabMay 2005;90:2898 – 2903
  15. Allabi AC, Horsmans Y, Issaoui B, Gala JL.Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1 (MDR1) gene and distinct haplotype profile in a West Black African populationEuropean Journal of Clinical PharmacologyApr 2005;61(2):97-102
  16. Nakajima Y, Saito Y, Shiseki K, Fukushima-Uesaka H, Hasegawa R, Ozawa S, Sugai K, Katoh M, Saitoh O, Ohnuma T, Kawai M, Ohtsuki T, Suzuki C, Minami N, Kimura H, Goto Y, Kamatani N, Kaniwa N, Sawada J.Haplotype structures of EPHX1 and their effects on the metabolism of carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide in Japanese epileptic patients.Eur J Clin PharmacolMar 2005;61(1):25-34
  17. Yu-Ching Weng, Ming-Jiuan Wu, and Wei-Sen LinCT60 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of the CTLA-4 Gene Is Associated with Susceptibility to Graves’ Disease in the Taiwanese PopulationAnn. Clin. Lab. SciJan 2005;35:259-264
  18. Hegab AE, Sakamoto T, Uchida Y, Nomura A, Ishii Y, Morishima Y, Mochizuki M, Kimura T, Saitoh W, Iizuka T, Kiwamoto T, Sekizawa K.Promoter activity of human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 gene with novel single nucleotide polymorphisms.RespirologyJan 2005;10(1):27-30
  19. Tomohiro NakayamaIssues and Progress in Isolation of Susceptibility Genes of Essential HypertensionCurrent Hypertension Reviews2005;1(1):77-87
  20. Akagawa H, Kasuya H, Onda H, Yoneyama T, Sasahara A, Kim CJ, Lee JC, Yang TK, Hori T, Inoue I.Influence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase T-786C single nucleotide polymorphism on aneurysm size.J Neurosurg2005;102(1):68-71
  21. Doi K, Noiri E, Nakao A, Fujita T, Kobayashi S, Tokunaga K.Haplotype analysis of NAD(P)H oxidase p22 phox polymorphisms in end-stage renal disease.J Hum Genet2005;50(12):641-647
  22. Shioji G, Ezura Y, Nakajima T, Ohgaki K, Fujiwara H, Kubota Y, Ichikawa T, Inoue K, Shuin T, Habuchi T, Ogawa O, Nishimura T, Emi M.Nucleotide variations in genes encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 and serine proteinase inhibitor B10 associated with prostate cancer.J Hum Genet2005;50(10):507-515
  23. Yanagi M, Shirakawa O, Kitamura N, Okamura K, Sakurai K, Nishiguchi N, Hashimoto T, Nushida H, Ueno Y, Kanbe D, Kawamura M, Araki K, Nawa H, Maeda K.Association of 14-3-3 epsilon gene haplotype with completed suicide in Japanese.J Hum Genet2005;50(4):210-216
  24. Fujita Y, Ezura Y, Bujo H, Nakajima T, Takahashi K, Kamimura K, Iino Y, Katayama Y, Saito Y, Emi M.Association of nucleotide variations in the apolipoprotein B48 receptor gene (APOB48R) with hypercholesterolemia.J Hum Genet2005;50(4):203-209
  25. Iida A, Ozaki K, Tanaka T, Nakamura Y.Fine-scale SNP map of an 11-kb genomic region at 22q13.1 containing the galectin-1 gene.J Hum Genet2005;50(1):42-45

2004

  1. Nobuyoshi Jinnai, Takuro Sakagami, Takashi Sekigawa, Miho Kakihara, Toshiaki Nakajima, Kenichi Yoshida, Shin Goto, Takashi Hasegawa, Takeshi Koshino, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Hiromasa Inoue, Naohito Suzuki, Yasuyuki Sano, and Ituro Inoue. Polymorphisms in the prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 2 gene confer susceptibility to aspirin-intolerant asthma: a candidate gene approach.Hum. Mol. GenetDec 2004;13:3203 – 3217
  2. Hiroshi Hirata, Naoko Okayama, Katsusuke Naito, Ryo Inoue, Satoru Yoshihiro, Hideyasu Matsuyama, Yutaka Suehiro, Yuichiro Hamanaka, and Yuji HinodaAssociation of a haplotype of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 polymorphisms with renal cell carcinoma.CarcinogenesisDec 2004;25:2379 – 2384
  3. Ahmed E. Hegab, Tohru Sakamoto, Wataru Saitoh, Hosam H. Massoud, Hosny M. Massoud, Khalid M. Hassanein, and Kiyohisa SekizawaPolymorphisms of IL4, IL13, and ADRB2 Genes in COPDChestDec 2004;126:1832 – 1839
  4. Onouchi Y, Onoue S, Tamari M, Wakui K, Fukushima Y, Yashiro M, Nakamura Y, Yanagawa H, Kishi F, Ouchi K, Terai M, Hamamoto K, Kudo F, Aotsuka H, Sato Y, Nariai A, Kaburagi Y, Miura M, Saji T, Kawasaki T, Nakamura Y, Hata A.CD40 ligand gene and Kawasaki disease.Eur J Hum GenetDec 2004;12(12):1062-1068
  5. Numakawa T, Yagasaki Y, Ishimoto T, Okada T, Suzuki T, Iwata N, Ozaki N, Taguchi T, Tatsumi M, Kamijima K, Straub RE, Weinberger DR, Kunugi H, Hashimoto R.Evidence of novel neuronal functions of dysbindin, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.Hum Mol GenetNov 2004;13(21):2699-2708
  6. Julie Robitaille, Charles Brouillette, Alain Houde, Jean-Pierre Desprs, Andr Tchernof, and Marie-Claude Vohl.Molecular Screening of the 11-HSD1 Gene in Men Characterized by the Metabolic Syndrome.Obes. ResOct 2004;12:1570 – 1575
  7. Haketa A, Soma M, Nakayama T, Sato M, Kosuge K, Aoi N, Matsumoto K.Two medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase genes, SAH and MACS1, are associated with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but they are not associated with essential hypertension.J HypertensOct 2004;22(10):1903-1907
  8. Iwai N, Mino Y, Hosoyamada M, Tago N, Kokubo Y, Endou H. A high prevalence of renal hypouricemia caused by inactive SLC22A12 in Japanese.Kidney IntSep 2004 ;66(3):935-944
  9. Saeki M, Saito Y, Jinno H, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Ohno A, Ozawa S, Ueno K, Kamakura S, Kamatani N, Komamura K, Kitakaze M, Sawada J.Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype frequencies of UGT2B4 and UGT2B7 in a Japanese population.Drug Metab DisposSep 2004 ;32(9):1048-1054
  10. Takuya Awata, Tamotsu Neda, Hiroyuki Iizuka, Susumu Kurihara, Tomoko Ohkubo, Nobuki Takata, Masataka Osaki, Masaki Watanabe, Youhei Nakashima, Takahiro Sawa, Kouichi Inukai, Ikuo Inoue, Masayuki Shibuya, Keisuke Mori, Shin Yoneya, and Shigehiro KatayamaEndothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Is Associated With Diabetic Macular Edema in Type 2 DiabetesDiabetes CareSep 2004 ;27:2184 – 2190
  11. Cheng L, Enomoto T, Hirota T, Shimizu M, Takahashi N, Akahoshi M, Matsuda A, Dake Y, Doi S, Enomoto K, Yamasaki A, Fukuda S, Mao XQ, Hopkin JM, Tamari M, Shirakawa T.Polymorphisms in ADAM33 are associated with allergic rhinitis due to Japanese cedar pollen.Clin Exp AllergyAug 2004;34(8):1192-1201
  12. Kanno H, Takizawa T, Miwa S, Fujii H.Molecular basis of Japanese variants of pyrimidine 5′-nucleotidase deficiency.Br J HaematolJul 2004 ;126(2):265-271
  13. Iwai N, Tago N, Yasui N, Kokubo Y, Inamoto N, Tomoike H, Shioji K.Genetic analysis of 22 candidate genes for hypertension in the Japanese population.J HypertensJun 2004;22(6):1119-1126
  14. H Ohmori, Y Ando, Y Makita, Y Onouchi, T Nakajima, M J M Saraiva, H Terazaki, O Suhr, G Sobue, M Nakamura, M Yamaizumi, M Munar-Ques, I Inoue, M Uchino, and A Hata.Common origin of the Val30Met mutation responsible for the amyloidogenic transthyretin type of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.J. Med. GenetApr 2004;41:51
  15. A E Hegab, T Sakamoto, Y Uchida, A Nomura, Y Ishii, Y Morishima, M Mochizuki, T Kimura, W Saitoh, H H Massoud, H M Massoud, K M Hassanein, and K Sekizawa.CLCA1 gene polymorphisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.J. Med. GenetMar 2004;41:27
  16. Yamashita T, Hamaguchi K, Kusuda Y, Kimura A, Sakata T, Yoshimatsu H.IKBL promoter polymorphism is strongly associated with resistance to type 1 diabetes in Japanese. Tissue Antigens.Tissue AntigensMar 2004;63(3):223-230
  17. Taku Yoneyama, Hidetoshi Kasuya, Hideaki Onda, Hiroyuki Akagawa, Kazunari Hashiguchi, Toshiaki Nakajima, Tomokatsu Hori, and Ituro Inoue.Collagen Type I 2 (COL1A2) Is the Susceptible Gene for Intracranial Aneurysms.StrokeFeb 2004;35:443-448
  18. Risa Miyashita, Naoyuki Tsuchiya, Koki Hikami, Kimiko Kuroki, Toru Fukazawa, Marc Bijl, Cees G. M. Kallenberg, Hiroshi Hashimoto, Toshio Yabe, and Katsushi Tokunaga.Molecular genetic analyses of human NKG2C (KLRC2) gene deletion. Int. ImmunolJan 2004;16:163 – 168
  19. Fukushima-Uesaka H, Saito Y, Watanabe H, Shiseki K, Saeki M, Nakamura T, Kurose K, Sai K, Komamura K, Ueno K, Kamakura S, Kitakaze M, Hanai S, Nakajima T, Matsumoto K, Saito H, Goto Y, Kimura H, Katoh M, Sugai K, Minami N, Shirao K, Tamura T, Yamamoto N, Minami H, Ohtsu A, Yoshida T, Saijo N, Kitamura Y, Kamatani N, Ozawa S, Sawada J.Haplotypes of CYP3A4 and their close linkage with CYP3A5 haplotypes in a Japanese population.Hum MutatJan 2004;23(1):100
  20. Ono, Koh; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Mannami, Toshifumi; Inamoto, Nozomu; Shioji, Keisuke; Iwai, NaoharuHeterozygous disruption of CMA1 does not affect blood pressure.Journal of HypertensionJan 2004 ;22(1):103-109
  21. Kokubo Y, Kamide K, Inamoto N, Tanaka C, Banno M, Takiuchi S, Kawano Y, Tomoike H, Miyata T.Identification of 108 SNPs in TSC, WNK1, and WNK4 and their association with hypertension in a Japanese general population.J Hum Genet2004;49(9):507-515
  22. Shioji K, Mannami T, Kokubo Y, Goto Y, Nonogi H, Iwai N.An association analysis between ApoA1 polymorphisms and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level and myocardial infarction (MI) in Japanese.J Hum Genet2004;49(8):433-439
  23. Shioji K, Nishioka J, Naraba H, Kokubo Y, Mannami T, Inamoto N, Kamide K, Takiuchi S, Yoshii M, Miwa Y, Kawano Y, Miyata T, Miyazaki S, Goto Y, Nonogi H, Tago N, Iwai N.A promoter variant of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene alters the HDL cholesterol level in the general Japanese population.J Hum Genet2004;49(3):141-147
  24. Mizuguchi T, Furuta I, Watanabe Y, Tsukamoto K, Tomita H, Tsujihata M, Ohta T, Kishino T, Matsumoto N, Minakami H, Niikawa N, Yoshiura K..LRP5, low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 5, is a determinant for bone mineral density.J Hum Genet2004;49(2):80-86
  25. Shioji K, Mannami T, Kokubo Y, Inamoto N, Takagi S, Goto Y, Nonogi H, Iwai N.Genetic variants in PCSK9 affect the cholesterol level in Japanese.J Hum Genet2004;49(2):109-114
  26. Akesaka T, Lee SG, Ohashi J, Bannai M, Tsuchiya N, Yoon Y, Tokunaga K, Song K.Comparative study of the haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium of chromosome 1p36.2 region in the Korean and Japanese populations.J Hum Genet2004;49:603-609
  27. Osawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Onuma, H.; Murakami, A.; Ochi, M.; Kawata, H.; Nishimiya, T.; Niiya, T.; Shimizu, I.; Nishida, W.; Hashiramoto, M.; Kanatsuka, A.; Fujii, Y.; Ohashi, J.; Makino, H.:The G/G genotype of a resistin single-nucleotide polymorphism at -420 increases type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility by inducing promoter activity through specific binding of Sp1/3. Am. J. Hum. Genet2004;75:678-686

2003

  1. Yasuda K, Sugita N, Kobayashi T, Yamamoto K, Yoshie H.FcgammaRIIB gene polymorphisms in Japanese periodontitis patients.Genes ImmunDec 2003;4(8):541-546
  2. Sai K, Kaniwa N, Itoda M, Saito Y, Hasegawa R, Komamura K, Ueno K, Kamakura S, Kitakaze M, Shirao K, Minami H, Ohtsu A, Yoshida T, Saijo N, Kitamura Y, Kamatani N, Ozawa S, Sawada J.Haplotype analysis of ABCB1/MDR1 blocks in a Japanese population reveals genotype-dependent renal clearance of irinotecan.PharmacogeneticsDec 2003;13(12):741-757
  3. Kamei H, Adati N, Arai Y, Yamamura K, Takayama M, Nakazawa S, Ebihara Y, Gondo Y, Akechi M, Noguchi T, Hirose N, Sakaki Y, Kojima T.Association analysis of the SHC1 gene locus with longevity in the Japanese population.J Mol MedNov 2003 ;81(11):724-728
  4. Tanaka T, Ikari K, Furushima K, Okada A, Tanaka H, Furukawa K, Yoshida K, Ikeda T, Ikegawa S, Hunt SC, Takeda J, Toh S, Harata S, Nakajima T, Inoue I.Genomewide linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses identify COL6A1, on chromosome 21, as the locus for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine.Am J Hum GenetOct 2003;73(4):812-822
  5. Naoharu Iwai, Toshifumi Mannami, Hitonobu Tomoike, Koh Ono, and Yoshitaka Iwanaga.An Acyl-CoA Synthetase Gene Family in Chromosome 16p12 May Contribute to Multiple Risk Factors.HypertensionMay 2003;41:1041 – 1046
  6. Tanaka C, Kamide K, Takiuchi S, Miwa Y, Yoshii M, Kawano Y, Miyata T. An alternative fast and convenient genotyping method for the screening of angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphisms.Hypertens ResApr 2003 ;26(4):301-306
  7. Ezura Y, Nakajima T, Kajita M, Ishida R, Inoue S, Yoshida H, Suzuki T, Shiraki M, Hosoi T, Orimo H, Emi M.Association of molecular variants, haplotypes, and linkage disequilibrium within the human vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene with postmenopausal bone mineral density.J Bone Miner ResSep 2003;18(9):1642-1649
  8. Yamakawa-Kobayashi K , Yanagi H, Endo K, Arinami T, Hamaguchi H (2003) Relationship between serum HDL-C levels and common genetic variants of the endothelial lipase gene in Japanese school-aged children. Hum Genet Sep 2003;113(4):311-315
  9. Ohmori H, Makita Y, Funamizu M, Chiba S, Ohtani K, Suzuki Y, Wakamiya N, Hata A.Haplotype analysis of the human collectin placenta 1 (hCL-P1) gene.J Hum Genet2003;48(2):82-85
  10. Masaki Fujieda, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Kazuma Kiyotani, Asami Muroi, Hideo Kunitoh, Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita, Yuichi Sawamura and Tetsuya Kamataki: Eighteen novel polymorphisms of the CYP2A13 gene in Japanese.Drug Metabol. Pharmacokin2003;18:86-90
  11. Yoneyama T, Kasuya H, Onda H, Akagawa H, Jinnai N, Nakajima T, Hori T, Inoue I.Association of positional and functional candidate genes FGF1, FBN2, and LOX on 5q31 with intracranial aneurysm.J Hum Genet2003;48(6):309-314

2002

  1. Shimo-onoda K, Tanaka T, Furushima K, Nakajima T, Toh S, Harata S, Yone K, Komiya S, Adachi H, Nakamura E, Fujimiya H, Inoue I.Akaike’s information criterion for a measure of linkage disequilibrium.J Hum Genet2002;47(12):649-655

Related information & Links

Please look at SNPAlyze top or product overview about the outline of the whole product.